Sensex, Nifty gain ground with Moody’s upgrade

Sensex, Nifty gain ground with Moody’s upgrade

The benchmark equity indices gained over one per cent in the morning trading session on Friday as global rating major Moody’s upgraded India’s rating after 14 years. At 10.30 a.m., the 30-share Sensex was trading up 364.20 points or 1.10% at 33,471.02. The broader Nifty was also up 113.30 points or 1.11% at 10,328.05.

The market breadth was strong with 1,701 stocks gaining ground as against only 508 declines. Most of the sectoral indices were also trading in the green.

SensexThe United States-based agency upgraded India’s sovereign credit rating by a notch to ‘Baa2’ with a stable outlook. It upgraded the country’s rating to ‘Baa3’ in 2004, while in 2015, only the rating outlook was changed to ‘positive’ from ‘stable’.

“The decision to upgrade the ratings is underpinned by Moody’s expectation that continued progress on economic and institutional reforms will, over time, enhance India’s high growth potential and its large and stable financing base for government debt, and will likely contribute to a gradual decline in the general government debt burden over the medium term,” Moody’s said in a statement.

It, however, cautioned that high debt burden remains a constraint on India’s credit profile.

“Moody’s upgrade comes as a welcome move in the wake of slew of structural reforms in the economy that are expected to enhance the potential growth in the medium term,” said Upasna Bhardwaj, senior economist, Kotak Mahindra Bank.

The United States-based agency upgraded India’s sovereign credit rating by a notch to ‘Baa2’ with a stable outlook. It upgraded the country’s rating to ‘Baa3’ in 2004, while in 2015, only the rating outlook was changed to ‘positive’ from ‘stable’. “The decision to upgrade the ratings is underpinned by Moody’s expectation that continued progress on economic and institutional reforms will, over time, enhance India’s high growth potential and its large and stable financing base for government debt, and will likely contribute to a gradual decline in the general government debt burden over the medium term,” Moody’s said in a statement.

“In the near term, however, given that debt limits are nearly utilised there remains minimal room for a rally in gsec. Further, inflows in equity markets will also increase domestic liquidity,” he said.

H-1B visa effect: Infosys to hire 10,000 American workers

H-1B visa effect: Infosys to hire 10,000 American workers

After H-1B visa effect, Indian Information Technology major Infosys will hire about 10,000 people in the United States over the next two years and set up four technology and innovation hubs there as part of its efforts to tide over visa related issues.

Through these new hires and centres, Infosys will also focus on enhancing its play in new technology areas like artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, user experience, cloud and big data.

H-1B visa, microstatInfosys CEO Vishal Sikka told PTI that the first hub, which would open in Indiana in coming August, would create 2,000 jobs by 2021 for American workers.

The location of the other three centres would be decided over the next few months. These hubs would not only train people on technology and innovation but also help in working closely with clients in key industries such as financial services, manufacturing, healthcare, retail and energy.

The North American market accounted for over 60 per cent of Infosys’ USD 10.2 billion revenue in the 2016-17 fiscal.

Mr. Sikka, however, said these steps were not being taken just to mitigate the impact of stricter visa norms in the U.S.

He said that over the last three years, there was an increase in the use of new technologies such as AI and virtual reality and even the traditional projects were becoming highly automated.

“As work becomes more next-gen, you need a more healthier mix of global and local talent and so, you need to rethink the traditional, what has historically been called ‘global delivery model’ and bring in a lot more talent locally,” he noted.

Over the past few weeks, there has been a growing sentiment of protectionism across various markets, including the U.S. that are seeking to safeguard jobs for locals and raising the bar for foreign workers.

The U.S. had accused Infosys and its larger rival, the Tata Consultancy Services, of “unfairly” cornering the lion’s share of the H-1B work visas by putting extra tickets in the lottery system.

Every year, the U.S. grants 65,000 H-1B visas, while another 20,000 are set aside for those with US advanced degrees.

In IT firms’ defence, industry body Nasscom had said that these two companies accounted for only 7,504 —— 8.8% — of the approved H-1B visas in 2014-15. At the end of March 2017, Infosys had over 2 lakh people on its payroll.

Tech companies use work permits like the H-1B visa (in the U.S.) to send engineers to work on client sites.

The tightening of visa norms not only pushes up operational costs for these tech firms but also makes movement of skilled workforce difficult. These companies are now adjusting their business models to reduce their dependence on visas and hiring more locals overseas instead.

Mr. Sikka, however, declined to comment on the investment and current mix of locals and global hires in the U.S.

Infosys has already hired over 2,000 people in the U.S. in the last few years under Mr. Sikka.

The 10,000 people that will be hired would include experienced technology professionals and recent graduates from major universities, and local and community colleges. Infosys would also train them on key competencies such as user experience, cloud, artificial intelligence, big data and digital offerings, as well as core technology and computer science skills.

Since 2015, Infosys has trained more than 1,34,000 students, over 2,500 teachers and almost 2,500 schools across America and provided classroom equipment, through Infosys Foundation USA.

-PTI, NEW DELHI, MAY 02, 2017

Bill Gates lauds Modi for success of Swachh Bharat

Bill Gates lauds PM Narendra Modi for ‘success’ of Swachh Bharat initiative

Last year, the world’s richest man traveled to Switzerland “to take a giant whiff” of the stench of pit toilets. “The stench was foul and made me wince,” wrote that man Bill Gates.

So why did he do it? It’s because “the world’s sanitation challenge” is something Gates is and has been deeply, deeply, concerned with and has been working on. And that’s precisely why it’s worth sitting up and taking notice when the Microsoft co-founder and philanthropist says he “loves” the Indian government’s Swachh Bharat initiative.
Bill Gates, microstat
In a note he posted earlier today on his blog, Gates talks in detail about why he thinks “India is winning the war on human waste.” And he lauds Prime Minister Narendra Modi for not just devising the Swachh Bharat initiative but for also talking about the issue of human waste.

“Nearly three years ago, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi made one of the boldest comments on public health that I have ever heard from an elected official…I can’t think of another time when a national leader has broached such a sensitive topic so frankly and so publicly,” wrote Gates about the PM’s 2014 Independence Day address to the nation.

“We are living in the 21st century. Has it ever pained us that our mothers and sisters have to defecate in the open?… The poor womenfolk of the village wait for the night; until darkness descends, they can`t go out to defecate. What bodily torture they must be feeling, how many diseases that act might engender. Can`t we make arrangements for toilets for the dignity of our mothers and sisters?” Modi said at that time.

If the problem were to be looked at through an economic lens, Gates calculated that poor sanitation costs India a staggering $106 billion-plus a year. That’s because of deaths, sickness and lost opportunity.

While it’s fairly simple to understand deaths and sickness due to abysmal sanitation, where is the lost opportunity that Gates is talking about? It’s in this statistic Gates cites: A quarter of young girls drop out of school because there’s no decent toilet available.

PM Modi understood what was at stake here, which is why he didn’t just voice his concerns, he acted on them. That’s impressed Gates the most.

“Even better (than talking frankly about it), Modi backed up his words with actions…What I love most about Clean India is that it identified a big problem, got everyone working on it, and is using measurement to show where things need to be done differently,”Gates said.

In 2014, when the Swachh Bharat initiative was launched, a mere 42 percent of Indians had access to proper toilets. “Now, 63 percent do,” Gates said. The Modi government’s plan is to give all Indians access to functioning toilets by October 2, 2019, which will be Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary.

Gates called the progress on the initiative so far “impressive.” The reasons for progress, he said, are ” a robust reporting system” and “ingenious ways” of getting people to change old habits.
“Officials know which states are on track and which are lagging behind, thanks to a robust reporting system that includes photographing and geo-tagging each newly installed toilet…As the old saying goes, What gets measured gets done. If you don’t set ambitious targets and chart your progress, you end up settling for business as usual—and in this case, business as usual would mean poor sanitation keeps killing more than half a million Indians every year,” Gates said.

Among the “ingenious” ways to get more people to use toilets – now that many have been built – Gates cited a pilot project the Centre is working on with Google, so users in 11 cities could search online for the nearest public toilets.

 -Apr 26, 2017

Mission Northeast- By Priyanka Deb Barman

Mission Northeast

BJP’s route into CPM-stronghold Tripura is via the Trinamool Congress

 By Priyanka Deb Barman 

On the way of Mission Northeast, the Left Front is Bharatiya Janata Party’s main hurdle in Tripura. But before taking on the entrenched reds, the saffron brigade appears to be gobbling up other competitors ahead of the 2018 assembly elections. In less than 48 hours since 23 March, 2017, some 1,250 Trinamool Congress (TMC) leaders, members, and supporters joined the BJP. It was reminiscent of how the TMC poached Congress leaders almost a year ago in a bid to do a West Bengal by uprooting the Marxists.

The Congress in Tripura was on TMC’s radar much before the BJP set out to make the Northeast comprising eight states Congress-free. In June last year, less than a month after the BJP ended 15 years of Congress rule in Assam, the TMC lured away six of the 10 Congress MLAs in Tripura.

It was the culmination of TMC’s 17 years of penetration in the Congress that began with former chief minister Sudhir Ranjan Majumder in 1999. Majumder died 10 years later. But while the BJP expanded its footprint from Assam to Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur, the TMC’s march has been somewhat halted in Tripura owing to a leadership tussle.

TMC lost hundreds of leaders and workers to the BJP this month. The TMC received a major blow when Surajit Dutta and Ratan Chakraborty – ministers in Majumder’s Congress government from 1988-1993 – donned saffron within 14 days of each other.

Dutta and Chakraborty were among a handful of leaders who helped the TMC grow in Tripura. Dutta went on to be the TMC’s state unit president while Chakraborty became the chairman of the party’s coordination committee. “I respect (TMC president and West Bengal chief minister) Mamata Banerjee’s leadership spirit but she has entrusted the Tripura unit of the party with those who do not worked for the people,” Chakraborty said after joining BJP with 42 others in the presence Union minister of state for railways Rajen Gohain on Thursday.

Accusing Tripura’s TMC leaders of working at the behest of chief minister Manik Sarkar’s Left Front government, Chakraborty said the BJP was the only party capable of loosening the Marxist stranglehold on the state since 1993. Gohain agreed. “Tripura will see a tsunami in 2018 just as people in Uttar Pradesh did,” Gohain said.

Tripura is one of three north-eastern states where assembly elections are scheduled in 2018. The other two are Meghalaya, where BJP is confident of displacing the Congress-led coalition, and Nagaland, which is ruled by a coalition that the regional Naga People’s Front, a BJP ally, heads.

TMC insiders admitted that a few MLAs and party office-bearers were in touch with BJP leaders and could switch over. State BJP president Biplab Kumar Deb is learnt to have met TMC legislator Biswabandhu Sen besides Congress MLA Ratan Lal Nath, who had indirectly supported demonetisation in the last assembly session.

Assembly elections

The Congress, though, has downplayed the threat from either BJP or TMC. “The BJP does not take the Northeast seriously, and it seems to be gaining ground only because of frequent visits by Central ministers,” veteran Congress leader Tapas Dey said.

Saffron step-up

The BJP has a long way to go in Tripura but been making its presence felt since 2015

 • Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council polls on May 3, 2015: The Left Front swept the 28 seats but BJP came second in five and was largely responsible for the communists getting less than 50% votes, as was the case earlier

By-poll for Pratapgarh and Surma assembly constituencies on June 27, 2015:  BJP displaced the opposition Congress for the second spot behind CPM that won both seats

 • Civic polls in December 2015: BJP won four seats each in two councils, stood second in five municipal councils and two seats in one Nagar Panchayat; Congress could manage only 13 seats

 • Tribal area village council polls in February 2016: BJP won 75 seats while the Marxists won 2,939 of the total 3,695 seats in 528 village councils

 • By-poll for Barjala and Khowai assembly in November 2016: CPM won both seats but came second in Barjala, earlier with Congress, and finished a close third in Khowai


Cabinet approves Fund of Fund for Start-ups (FFS)

Cabinet approves of proposal to establish a Fund of Fund for Start-ups (FFS)

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the following proposals with regard to the Fund of Funds of Start-ups (FFS) which was established in June, last year with a corpus of Rs. 1,000 crores.

i. Alternate Investment Funds (AIFs) supported by FFS shall invest at least twice the amount of contribution received from FFS in Start-ups qualifying as per the Gazette Notification G.S.R.180 (E) dt. 17/02/2016. Further, if the amount committed for a Start-up in whole has not been released before a Start-up ceases to be so, the balance funding can continue thereafter.
ii. It was also decided that operating expenses for carrying out due diligence, legal and technical appraisal, convening meeting of Venture Capital Investment Committee, etc. would be met out of the FFS to the extent of 0.50% of the commitments made to AIFs and outstanding. This will be debited to the fund at the beginning of each half year; i.e. April 1 and October 1.
The Union Cabinet in its meeting held on 22/06/2016 had approved the proposal to establish a Fund of Funds for Start-ups (FFS) with a total corpus of Rs.10000 crore, with contribution spread over the 14th & 15th Finance Commission cycles based on progress of implementation and availability of funds. It was decided that the FFS shall contribute to the corpus of Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) for investing in equity and equity linked instruments of various start-ups at early stage, seed stage and growth stages.
The FFS is being managed and operated by Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).  FFS contributes to SEBI registered Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) that may go up to a maximum of 35% of the corpus of the AIF concerned.
The Cabinet on 22.06.2016 had decided that the corpus of Fund of Funds along with counterpart funds raised by the AIFs in which FFS takes equity would be invested entirely in Start-ups. It has been pointed out to the Department during its interactions with various stakeholders that investors in the AIFs would prefer that the portfolio of AIFs is adequately diversified to manage the investment risks appropriately and if the entire pool of funds of the AIF is invested in Start-ups, it poses unacceptable risks to the investors of such AIFs.
The other issues raised by stakeholders were that the process of funding of Start-ups by AIFs is long drawn which starts from pitching by a Start-up, commitment by the AIF and then release of funds in tranches. Thus it is possible that before release of the final instalment the turnover of the Start-up crosses Rs. 25 crores but it still needs funds to meet its growth requirements. Besides, Start-ups need access to funds through various stages of their life cycle, viz. early stage, seed stage and growth stage.
It was also pointed out to the Department by SIDBI that the present provisions don’t provide for SIDBI to get compensated for activities done post sanction to AIFs. These decisions have been taken to in the backdrop of the above concerns.
-Cabinet, 22-March, 2017

Judicial vacancies in HCs are being filled up on a warpath: CJI

Judicial vacancies in HCs are being filled up on a warpath: CJI

Chief Justice of India J.S. Khehar said on Monday that filling up of Judicial vacancies in the High Courts is progressing on a “warpath”.

Heading a three-judge Bench, the Chief Justice said a recent order has been passed to increase the number of posts of judges in the the High Courts by 25 per cent.

Chief Justice Khehar, for the first time, confirmed in open court that the Memorandum of Procedure (MoP) for appointment of judges has been cleared by the Supreme Court Collegium. The memorandum had been hanging fire for over the past year following the NJAC judgment in October 2015, which had quashed any interference or part by the Executive in judges’ appointments.

“Progress has been made. The MoP is cleared. A recent order was passed to increase the number of judges in the High Courts of States,” Chief Justice Khehar remarked.

The Chief Justice said in the order that it is not disputed that there are “a large number of vacancies at various HCS, but rigorous process for filling the same is in place”.

Disposing a petition seeking increase in the number of judges to tide over the alarming pendency in subordinate courts and HCs, Chief Justice Khehar put his foot down, saying there will not be any fresh increase in the number of judges in the HCs until the present vacancies are filled up and the process recommended in the MoP is implemented.

Dealing with another petition suggesting various measures to cut pendency, the Bench transferred the petition to an internal judicial committee for its perusal.

“A committee was constituted recently and we have from time to time depending on the different high courts adopted various measures to expedite disposal of cases and their streamlining… We have invited all the Chief Justices of the HCs to sit together and devise the ways and means. Some measures have already been taken. We will sited your petition to the committee for its consideration,” Chief Justice Khehar said.


Kumarmangalam Birla to be the Chairman of merged Vodafone-Idea entity

Kumarmangalam Birla to be the Chairman of merged Vodafone-Idea entity

The U.K.’s Vodafone and Aditya Birla group firm Idea Cellular on Monday announced that they have kickstarted a mega merger deal. Vodafone will own 45.1% of the merged entity, after it transfers about 4.9% to promoters of Idea and/or their affiliates for ₹38.74 billion rupees, Idea said. Idea will have the sole right to appoint the chairman. Kumarmangalam Birla will be the Chairman of merged Vodafone-Idea entity and both the companies will have equal stakes in the merged entity over a period of time.

Shares in Idea rose as much as 14.25% immediately after the merger news but gave up gains to be trading up 3.8%. Vodafone and Idea began talks for a possible merger in late January this year.

The combined market share of both the telecos add up to 43%, making it the largest telecom firm, surpassing Bharti Airtel. The merger will create an entity with a revenue of around ₹77,500-80,000 crore besides eliminating duplication of spectrum and infrastructure capex, according to India Ratings and Research.

The spectrum of Vodafone India in seven circles and that of Idea in two, whose permits are expiring in 2021-22, is together valued at around ₹12,000 crore as per the last auction price. These permits are not in common circles, and hence there could be potential spectrum capex synergies between the two companies, the report said.

Key take-aways from the merger deal

Entire business of VIL and VMSL, excluding VIL’s investment in Indus Towers, international network assets and IT platforms, to vest in co.

On amalgamation of VMSL becoming effective, co shall issue shares of co to VIL equal to 47% of post issue paid-up capital of co.

Vodafone to own 45.1% of combined co after transferring about 4.9% to promoters of Idea and/or affiliates for INR 38.74 billion in cash

Board of combined entity will be comprised of 12 directors including 3 directors appointed by each of Vodafone and Aditya Birla Group

Promoters of Idea, Vodafone have right to nominate 3 directors each

Promoters of Idea have sole right to appoint chairman

Vodafone has right to appoint CFO of company

Appointment of CEO, COO will require approval of both promoters of Idea and Vodafone

Promoters of Idea have right to buy up to 9.5% additional stake from Vodafone under agreed mechanism with view of equalising shareholdings over time

Agreement contemplates completion of proposed amalgamation with a period of 24 months

Until equalisation is achieved, voting rights of additional shares held by Vodafone will be restricted and votes will be exercised jointly

Idea to contribute all of its assets including standalone towers with 15.4k tenancies and 11.15% stake in Indus Towers

Vodafone to contribute Vodafone India including standalone towers with 15.8k tenancies but excluding 42% stake in Indus Towers

Vodafone will contribute 25 billion rupees more net debt than Idea at completion

Post-closing, combined company will be reported as a JV by Vodafone and accounted for under equity method

As combined entity will be jointly controlled by Vodafone & Aditya Birla Group, Vodafone will deconsolidate Vodafone India immediately

– MARCH 20, 2017

18 New Greenfield Airports in India granted approval

Development of Airport Infrastructure and Setting up of New Greenfield Airports in India 

Committee Suggests Gradual Bifurcation of ANS from AAI

The present infrastructure capacity of airport is generally sufficient for handling existing air traffic. However, keeping in view of rapid growth of domestic airlines, expansion of infrastructure at airports including runway, terminal building and air space harmonization has been undertaken. Now the government has granted “in principle” approval  to 18 new Greenfield Airports in India.

It is planned to revive 50 airstrips and airports over a period of three years starting from 2017-18 at a total estimated cost of Rs. 4500 crores. However, the development of airports and airstrips to be undertaken only in those States where the State Government agrees to provide the requisite concessions and a firm commitment from airlines to fly from or to such airports.

The Government of India has granted “in principle” approval for setting up of the 18 Greenfield airports in the country. The list of these airport along with the estimated cost is as under: MOPA in Goa (approx. Rs. 3100 cr), Navi Mumbai (approx. Rs. 16704 cr), Shirdi (approx. Rs. 320.54cr) and Sindhudurg (approx. Rs. 520cr) in Maharashtra, Bijapur (approx. Rs. 150cr), Gulbarga (approx. Rs. 13.78 cr in initial phase), Hassan (approx. Rs. 592 cr) and Shimoga (approx. Rs. 38.91 cr) in Karnataka, Kannur in Kerala (approx. Rs. 1892 cr), Durgapur in West Bengal (approx. Rs. 670 cr), Dabra in Madhya Pradesh (approx. Rs. 200 cr), Pakyong in Sikkim (approx. Rs. 553.53 cr), Karaikal in Pudducherry (approx. Rs.170 cr), Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh (approx. Rs. 448 cr), Dholera in Gujarat (approx. Rs. 1712 cr) and Dagadarthi Mendal, Nellore Dist. (approx. Rs. 293 cr), Bhogapuram in Vizianagaram District near Visakhapatnam (approx. Rs. 2260 cr) and Oravakallu in Kurnool District (approx. Rs. 200 cr), Andhra Pradesh. In Addition Airports Authority of India (AAI) has begun the PPP bidding process for O&M contracts for Jaipur and Ahmedabad airports.

The Ministry of Civil Aviation had set up a two member Committee consisting of Shri Ashok Chawla, Ex-Chairman, Competition Commission of India and Shri Satendra Singh, Ex-DGCA to examine afresh the issue related to creation of separate Air Navigation Services entity by hiving off Air Navigation Services (ANS) from Airports Authority of India (AAI). The committee has suggested bifurcation of ANS from AAI in a gradual manner.

This information was given by the Minister of State for Civil Aviation Shri Jayant Sinha in written reply to a question in Lok Sabha.

-Ministry of Civil Aviation, 16-March, 2017

Trivendra Singh Rawat to be the CM of Uttarakhand

Trivendra Singh Rawat to be the CM of Uttarakhand 

Trivendra Singh Rawat was today unanimously elected the leader of Uttarakhand BJP legislature party, paving the way for the former RSS man’s swearing in tomorrow as the new Chief Minister of the state.

Announcing this after the legislature party meeting at a hotel here, BJP’s central observer for the election Narendra Singh Tomar said Rawat’s name was proposed by Prakash Pant and Satpal Maharaj, MLAs from Pithoragarh and Chaubattakhal respectively, and by seconded by a host of other legislators.

Trivendra Singh, CMSatpal Mahraj, a former Union minister and one of the proposers, was among the contenders for the top job.

Soon after the legislature party meeting, the MLAs left for Raj Bhawan where they will hand over the resolution on Rawat’s unanimous eletion to Governor K K Paul.

Rawat will be sworn-in as the eighth Chief Minister of the hill state tomorrow at the Parade Ground here in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and BJP chief Amit Shah, besides a host of national and state party leaders.

Soon after the meeting was over, incharge of the party’s affairs in the state Shyam Jaju described Rawat as the most suitable choice for the new responsibility since he was a leader who had both organisational and ministerial experience having served as BJP’s organisation secretary and a minister.

“Trivendra Singh Rawat is a leader who has both organisational and ministerial experience. He is perfectly equipped to give the state the kind of leadership it needs, ” Jaju said.

Rawat emerged as the party’s choice for the top office beating stiff competition from contenders like Prakash Pant and Satpal Maharaj.

The past six days after March 11, when the party swept to a landslide victory in the state winning 57 out of 70 seats, witnessed intense speculation over who would be the new Chief Minister with over half a dozen heavyweight contenders, including as many as three former CMs.

After his election as the legislature party leader, Rawat promised to work towards Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s goal of eliminating corruption and poverty.

“Providing people of the state with a corruption free government and bringing about a major change in the lives of the poorest of the poor as targeted by the Prime Minister will be our priority,” he told reporters.

The political acumen and organisational skills of Rawat (56) were evident in the manner he guided the party to an impressive win in the Jharkhand assembly elections in 2014 as BJP in-charge of the state.

His RSS background also appeared to have stood him in good stead and helped him enjoy the trust of the BJP leadership.

The third-term MLA from Doiwala seat in Pauri Garhwal district, is also known for his fierce loyalty to the BJP and has never shifted allegiance to any other party.

While stumping for him, Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh reminded the voters “Trivendra Singh Rawat ne kabhi apni nishtha nahin badli (Rawat never switched his loyalty)”.

Chaired by Pradesh BJP president Ajay Bhatt, the legislature party meeting was attended by all the newly elected MLAs, all five party MPs, central observers Narendra Singh Tomar and Saroj Pandey, besides in-charge of party’s affairs in the state Shyam Jaju, and Union Petroleum Minister and party’s election incharge for the state Dharmendra Pradhan.

 -17 March, 2017 | PTI | Dehradun