BJP won’t ally with Congress at any cost, Fadnavis

BMC hung verdict: BJP won’t ally with Congress at any cost, says Devendra Fadnavis

BJP is a party which fights ideology with ideology. Whether we bag power (in BMC) or not, we will never go with the Congress


BJP fadnavis

Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis on Saturday categorically stated that Bharatiya Janata Party ( BJP ) won’t ally with Congress at any cost for taking control over Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC).

In an apparent reference to Shiv Sena, Fadnavis said if any party wants to align with the Congress, it’s is free to go, BJP will not say a single word.

“We will take along those who come with us, but proceed without those who don’t come with us,” he said, addressing a rally at the state BJP office.

“We (BJP) will go as per our path, taking along those who come with us,” he said.

“BJP is a party which fights ideology with ideology. Whether we bag power (in BMC) or not, we will never go with the Congress,” the CM said.

Fadnavis’ statement comes a day after a Congress leader leader confirmed to IANS that the Shiv Sena did approach the party for an alliance in Mumbai, but the party did not show interest.

In the fiercely contested BMC polls, the ruling BJP finished close second to Shiv Sena, while it pulled off a stellar performance in other civic and local bodies polls winning in eight out of the 10 municipal corporations.

While the Shiv Sena emerged on the top with 84 seats, the BJP was a close second at 82, and claiming the support of at least four independents, announced it would stake claim to the key post of Mayor.

The tally of Shiv Sena, which emerged as the single largest party after the counting on Thursday, has risen to 87 corporators with three party rebels who won as Independent nominees returning to its fold yesterday.

The BJP gained hugely in nine other major civic bodies of Maharashtra as well.

With BJP and Shiv Sena finishing neck-to-neck in the BMC elections, Union Minister Nitin Gadkari on Friday said that both parties have no option but to come together again.

Speaking to a Marathi TV channel. Gadkari said, “there is no option for his party and Shiv Sena, but to come together,” adding that the decision, however, would have to be taken by Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis and Sena chief Uddhav Thackeray.

Meanwhile, differences in the Congress over considering the option of enabling a Shiv Sena candidate to become mayor of Mumbai today came to the fore as a senior party leader strongly opposed the idea.

“I take strong objection to any discussion even of having any tie up or indirect support to the Shiv Sena in the BMC,” party’s former city chief Gurudas Kamat said, adding he has informed Congress vice president Rahul Gandhi of his opinion.

With the bitterly fought elections to BMC resulting in a fractured verdict, thinking is strong in the Maharashstra Congress that it should consider the option of enabling the Shiv Sena to foist its candidate as mayor of the city, as a tactical move to sharpen the rift in the saffron camp.

Sena continued to maintain that the coveted Mayor’s post will be held by it only, discounting the chances of a post-poll pact with the BJP.

-February 25, 2017, Mumbai


BJP’s win in civic polls a mandate on transparency: Fadnavis

BJP’s win in civic polls a mandate on transparency: Fadnavis

As it put up a sterling performance in civic polls across Maharashtra including the cash-rich BMC, Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis today said BJP’s victory resulted from a vote for transparency and demonetisation.

A jubilant Fadnavis, who spearheaded BJP’s poll campaign, said the party’s core committee will decide the future course of action in Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC).

“All decisions for the party are taken by its core committee. Whether or not to go for an alliance will be decided when I, (Maharashtra BJP President) Raosaheb Danve, (Mumbai BJP chief) Ashish Shelar sit and look at the prevailing situation,” Fadnavis told reporters here.

BJP came a close second to the Shiv Sena bagging 80 seats in the 227-member BMC, while the Uddhav Thackeray-led party emerged victorious with 84 seats.

The BJP is also set to gain control of at least six civic bodies — Pune, Nashik, Ulhasnagar, Akola, Nagpur and Amravati — out of the 10 corporations for which the elections were held on Tuesday. The party is also doing well in the Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation, as per the latest trends.

The BJP also appeared to have expanded its base in Pimpri Chinchwad, despite fierce competition from the NCP.

Fadnavis said the results are an ample indication that people have accepted Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s note ban move and the state government’s transparency plank.

“Our politics consists of trust and transparency. This result is a reflection that people have accepted our style of governance. No other party in the last 25 years has got such a wonderful result,” he said.

“In BMC, we have got an amazing response. Our agenda of transparency and accountability been accepted by people,” he said.

Fadnavis said the results of BMC and other municipal corporations has made the BJP more humble and that instead of indulging in mere talk, they would concentrate on good governance.

“This is a victory of demonetisation. The move was to end corruption and weed out black money. The results have proven people have faith in Modi ji’s governance,” he said.

The party’s state unit chief, Danve, said they had all along known BJP would emerge as the single largest party.

“We had all along known that the BJP will emerge as the single largest party. It was (PM Narendra) Modi ji and (BJP National President) Amit Shah ji’s dream that BJP should be from government from panchayat to Parliament. This dream has been brought true by Maharashtra BJP workers,” he said.

“This result is only due to the work done by Modi ji at the Centre and Fadnavis here,” he added.

BJP MP Kirit Somaiya sought to know if the Congress will provide outside support to the Sena to help them stake claim to power in the BMC.

British-era Bunker discovered inside Raj Bhavan in Mumbai

British-era Bunker discovered inside Raj Bhavan in Mumbai

The British-era Bunker opens with a 20-foot-tall gate and a ramp on the western side. There are long passages and small to medium rooms on either side. The bunker spreads over an area of more than 5,000 square feet with rooms bearing names like shell store, gun shell, cartridge store, shell lift, pump and workshop. There are also scores of lamp recesses in the gangway.  

A 150-metre British-era Bunker, which had been closed for several decades, has been discovered inside Raj Bhavan.  Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis visited the bunker late on Tuesday eveningBritish-era Bunker.

About three months ago, Governor Ch. Vidyasagar Rao was informed by old-timers about a tunnel inside Raj Bhavan, after which he had ordered that it be opened.

British-era Bunker

On August 12, staff of the Public Works Department broke open a temporary wall that had blocked the entrance to the bunker on the eastern side.  The bunker opens with a 20-foot-tall gate and a ramp on the western side. There are long passages and small to medium rooms on either side. The bunker spreads over an area of more than 5,000 square feet with rooms bearing names like shell store, gun shell, cartridge store, shell lift, pump and workshop. There are also scores of lamp recesses in the gangway.

Even though the bunker was apparently closed after independence, it was found to be intact. The bunker has a drainage system and inlets for fresh air and light.  According to the history of Raj Bhavan, Government House at Parel once served as the Governor’s residence before 1885.

In 1885, Lord Reay turned the Malabar Hill residence, which served as the summer residence of the British Governors, into a permanent residence.

Mr. Rao, accompanied by his wife Vinodha, also visited the bunker on Thursday, and expressed his intention to consult experts to preserve the structure.

Courtesy-The Hindu, MUMBAI, August 17, 2016 

Mumbai -Goa highway bridge collapse: 2 dead, 44 missing

Mumbai -Goa highway bridge collapse: 2 dead, 44 missing; CM reviews rescue ops, Opposition seeks probe

Mumbai-Goa highway bridge collapse: 2 dead, 44 missing; CM reviews rescue ops, Opposition seeks probe

A British era bridge on the Mumbai-Goa National Highway collapsed in the wee hours of Wednesday due to excessive rains in the Konkan region in Maharashtra.

Maharashtra CM Devendra Fadnavis also arrived at the bridge collapse site to review the relief and rescue work.Mumbai-Goa bridge collapse: Maharashtra CM Devendra Fadnavis at the spot.

The rescuers have recovered two dead bodies from the overflowing Savitri river and a massive search is on for others who are missing, Raigad Collector Sheetal Ugale had confirmed.

At least 44 people, two buses and several other vehicles went missing near Mahad city after the bridge, more than seven decades old and a critical link to the Mumbai-Goa National Highway, crashed around 1 am due to the flood waters rushing into the river.

 Two state transport buses with 11 passengers each are also missing and there was no contact with either their drivers or the passengers, Raigad Collector Sheetal Ugale said.

Since the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation buses, which started from Mumbai, did not arrive at their scheduled Mahad depot, Ugale appealed people to get in touch with the concerned authorities about their missing relatives. Locals said that around five to six private vehicles were also missing and they were feared to be washed away in the floods.

The ICG has meanwhile pressed Chetak Helicopters into search operations for tracing missing vehicles. Sea king 42C all weather aircraft with diving team has also been pressed into service by the Indian Navy. A massive search operation have been initiated, Ugale confirmed

“The bridge was built during the British era. After discussion with the National Highways Authority, we have shifted traffic to the new parallel bridge nearby. We are trying to confirm reports of other missing vehicles,” Ugale said.

Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh today informed Lok Sabha that 4 NDRF teams comprising 115 personnel including divers along with 12 boats were immediately rushed to Maharashtra bridge collapse site. Centre stands with Maharashtra government in this hour of crisis and assures all possible help, Singh added.

Meanwhile, the Opposition in Maharashtra Legislative Assembly today sought a judicial probe into the Mahad bridge collapse tragedy. Raising the issue in the Assembly, former CM Prithviraj Chavan said a judicial probe should be conducted and action taken against those guilty of allowing the old bridge to remain open for traffic.

A case of IPC 302 should also be filed against PWD minister Chandrakant Patil, he added.

Meanwhile, a 45-member National Disaster Response Force team has reached Raigad from Pune to assist in the rescue operations.

Maharashtra CM Fadnavis said that PM Narendra Modi had called him in the morning and assured all help from Centre. NDRF teams have reached and carrying out search operations, the Maharashtra CM added.

As of now we have reports of two state transport buses missing with 22 people onboard, Fadnavis said. He also added that primary reason seems to be high pressure caused due to flooding of river Savitri as heavy rains continue to lash the catchment of Mahabaleshwar.

Raigad Collector also confirmed that one way traffic has now resumed on the new bridge, he added.

Incessant rains continue to lash the coastal Konkan, northern and western Maharashtra since past five days.

– August 3, 2016, Mumbai

Another ISIS suspect arrested from Thane,Maharashtra

Another ISIS suspect arrested from Maharashtra’s Thane district

Another ISIS suspect arrested from Maharashtra's Thane district

A Islamic State suspect was arrested from Thane in a joint operation conducted by Kerala Police and Maharashtra Anti Terrorism Squad on Saturday.

According to a senior ATS official here, the man identified as Rizwan Khan was arrested from his residence at Kalyan in Thane district last night.

Sources said Khan was allegedly responsible for recruiting youths to ISIS. A case has also been registered against him in Kerala in connection with conversion issues.

 Earlier this month, the Maharashtra ATS had arrested a 31-year-old man, who was said to be in touch with ISIS members.

The arrested person, a resident of Parbhani district in Maharashtra, was in touch with another wanted accused Farooque, who is believed to be based in Syria.

The National Investigation Agency (NIA) on June 29 busted an IS module by detaining 11 young men during searches at 10 places in the old city of Hyderabad.

The next day the NIA had claimed that the five persons arrested (Mohammed Ibrahim Yazdani alias Ibbu, Habeeb Mohammed alias Sir, Mohammed Ilyas Yazdani, Abdullah Bin Ahmed Al Amoodi and Muzaffar Hussain Rizwan) were getting instructions from ISIS for planning and carrying out terrorist activities in India.

-July 23, 2016, Mumbai

China offers cloudseeding tech to drought hit Maharashtra

China offers cloud-seeding tech to drought-hit Maharashtra

China is in talks with India to provide cloud-seeding technology to drought-hit Maharashtra to induce rain and train the staff of local meteorological department.

A team of scientists and officials from Beijing, Shanghai and China’s eastern Anhui province mooted the cooperation during their recent visit to Maharashtra which has experienced severe droughts over the past two years.

China has over the years used the cloud seeding rockets tipped with silver iodide to cause precipitation. But it requires clouds to cause precipitation.

If the discussions are successful, Chinese experts would provide training to officials of the Indian Meteorological Department on their latest cloud-seeding technology, state-run China Daily quoted officials as saying.

The training is expected to be given on procedures to seed clouds successfully, the daily said.

The training is aimed at inducing rain over Maharashtra’s Marathwada region in the summer of 2017 if needed, it said.

The development follows a meeting between Shanghai’s top official Han Zheng and Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis in Mumbai in early May.

Han, who is also a Communist Party of China Politburo member, had asked Fadnavis if China could do anything for drought relief in Maharashtra, it said.

China started to use cloud-seeding technology in 1958, and today it has one of the most advanced systems in the world, the report said. 18 June 2016 | PTI | Beijing

What is Cloud seeding technology?

Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification and is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the micro-physical processes within the cloud. The usual intent is to increase precipitation (rain or snow), but hail and fog suppression are also widely practiced in airports.

Cloud seeding also occurs due to ice nucleators in nature, most of which are bacterial in origin.

The most common chemicals used for cloud seeding include silver iodide, potassium iodide and dry ice (solid carbon dioxide). Liquid propane, which expands into a gas, has also been used. This can produce ice crystals at higher temperatures than silver iodide. After promising research, the use of hygroscopic materials, such as table salt, is becoming more popular. Cloud seeding to increase snowfall takes place when temperatures within the clouds are between 19 and −4 °F (−7 and −20 °C). Introduction of a substance such as silver iodide, which has a crystalline structure similar to that of ice, will inducefreezing nucleation.

In mid-latitude clouds, the usual seeding strategy has been based on the fact that the equilibrium vapor pressure is lower over ice than over water. The formation of ice particles in super cooled clouds allows those particles to grow at the expense of liquid droplets. If sufficient growth takes place, the particles become heavy enough to fall as precipitation from clouds that otherwise would produce no precipitation. This process is known as “static” seeding.

Seeding of warm-season or tropical cumulonimbus (convective) clouds seeks to exploit the latent heat released by freezing. This strategy of “dynamic” seeding assumes that the additional latent heat adds buoyancy, strengthens updrafts, ensures more low-level convergence, and ultimately causes rapid growth of properly selected clouds.

Cloud seeding chemicals may be dispersed by aircraft or by dispersion devices located on the ground (generators or canisters fired from anti-aircraft guns or rockets). For release by aircraft, silver iodide flares are ignited and dispersed as an aircraft flies through the inflow of a cloud. When released by devices on the ground, the fine particles are carried downwind and upward by air currents after release.

An electronic mechanism was tested in 2010, when infrared laser pulses were directed to the air above Berlin by researchers from the University of Geneva. The experimenters posited that the pulses would encourage atmospheric sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide to form particles that would then act as seeds.


Cloud seeding is no longer considered a fringe science, and is considered a mainstream tool to improve rain precipitation and snow. New technology and research has produced reliable results that make cloud seeding a dependable and affordable water-supply practice for many regions. While practiced widely around the world, the effectiveness of cloud seeding is still a matter of academic debate. In 2004 the United States National Research Council released a report stating that to date, there is still no convincing scientific proof of the efficacy of intentional weather modification as it only has 30 percent or less chance of success.

Referring to 1903, 1915, 1919, 1944, and 1947 weather modification experiments, the Australian Federation of Meteorology discounted “rain making”. By the 1950s, the CSIRODivision of Radiophysics switched to investigating the physics of clouds and had hoped by 1957 to better understand these processes. By the 1960s, the dreams of weather making had faded only to be re-ignited post-corporatisation of the Snowy Mountains Scheme in order to achieve “above target” water. This would provide enhanced energy generation and profits to the public agencies that are the principal owners.

Cloud seeding has been shown to be effective in altering cloud structure and size and in converting supercooled liquid water to ice particles. The amount of precipitation due to seeding is difficult to quantify.

A key challenge is in discerning how much precipitation would have occurred had clouds not been seeded. Overall, there is general expectation that winter cloud seeding over mountains will produce snow, expressed by professional organizations.[full citation neededfull citation needed[full citation needed] There is statistical evidence for seasonal precipitation increases of about 10 percent with winter seeding.

Clouds were seeded during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing using rockets, to coax rain showers out of clouds before they reached the Olympic city [12] so that there would be no rain during the opening and closing ceremonies, although others dispute their claims of success.

A 2010 Tel Aviv University study claimed that the common practice of cloud seeding to improve or induce rainfall, with materials such as silver iodide and frozen carbon dioxide, were not as effective as was hoped. A 2011 study suggested that airplanes may produce ice particles by freezing cloud droplets that cool as they flow around the tips of propellers, over wings or over jet aircraft, and thereby unintentionally seed clouds. This could have potentially serious consequences for particular hail stone formation.

Impact on environment and health

With an NFPA 704 health hazard rating of 2, silver iodide can cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury to humans and mammals with intense or continued but not chronic exposure. However, there have been several detailed ecological studies that showed negligible environmental and health impacts. The toxicity of silver and silver compounds (from silver iodide) was shown to be of low order in some studies. These findings likely result from the minute amounts of silver generated by cloud seeding, which are about one percent of industry emissions into the atmosphere in many parts of the world, or individual exposure from tooth fillings.

Accumulations in the soil, vegetation, and surface runoff have not been large enough to measure above natural background. A 1995 environmental assessment in the Sierra Nevada of California and a 2004 independent panel of experts in Australia confirmed these earlier findings.

“In 1978, an estimated 2,740 tonnes of silver were released into the US environment. This led the US Health Services and EPA to conduct studies regarding the potential for environmental and human health hazards related to silver. These agencies and other state agencies applied the Clean Water Act of 1977 and 1987 to establish regulations on this type of pollution.”

Cloud seeding over Kosciuszko National Park—a biosphere reserve—is problematic in that several rapid changes of environmental legislation were made to enable the trial. Environmentalists are concerned about the uptake of elemental silver in a highly sensitive environment affecting the pygmy possum among other species as well as recent high level algal blooms in once pristine glacial lakes. Research 50 years ago and analysis by the former Snowy Mountains Authority led to the cessation of the cloud seeding program in the 1950s with non-definitive results. Formerly, cloud seeding was rejected in Australia on environmental grounds because of concerns about the protected species, the pygmy possum. Since silver iodide and not elemental silver is the cloud seeding material, the claims of negative environmental impact are disputed by peer-reviewed research as summarized by the international Weather Modification Association.


Create disaster mitigation fund:SC instructs Centre

Create disaster mitigation fund:SC instructs Centre 

The Supreme Court today asked the Centre to create a disaster mitigation fund to tackle drought- like situation and directed the Agriculture Ministry to hold a meeting within a week with affected states like Bihar, Gujarat and Haryana to assess the conditions.
A bench headed by Justice M B Lokur directed the Centre to also implement the provisions of Disaster Management Act and fix a time limit for declaration of drought on scientific grounds.
It also asked the Centre to revise the drought management manual to provide effective relief to calamity-hit farmers and prepare a national plan to tackle the crisis.
“Agriculture Ministry is directed to hold a meeting within a week with Chief Secretaries of drought-hit Bihar, Gujarat and Haryana to assess the situation,” the bench also comprising Justice N V Ramana said.
The court also directed that the National Disaster Response Force should be trained and equipped to tackle the drought-like situation.
Additional Solicitor General P S Narasimha had on April 26 told the bench that Centre is alive to the situation prevailing in the drought-hit areas and states are working hard to provide every possible relief to the farmers in such natural calamity hit areas.
Earlier, the apex court had told the Centre whether it was not its responsibility to warn the states about the drought like situation likely to prevail in the near future.
The court had expressed its concern over low compensation paid to calamity-hit farmers and observed that it was leading some of them to commit suicide.
The petitioner NGO, Swaraj Abhiyan, in its revised prayer, had sought a direction to Centre to abide by the provisions of MNREGA Act and use it for employment generation in drought-affected areas.
The PIL filed by the NGO had alleged that parts of 12 states of Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Haryana and Chattisgarh were hit by drought and the authorities were not providing adequate relief.
-11 May 2016 | PTI | New Delhi

Rajnath meets intelligence, police officials over ISIS

Rajnath meets intelligence, police officials over ISIS 

Top officials of central intelligence and investigative agencies and police of 13 states today held a meeting with Home Minister Rajnath Singh and discussed steps to check the growing influence of ISIS among youngsters through social media and other sources.

Singh held the day-long meeting to review the situation arising out of some Indian youths getting attracted towards ISIS, also known as ISIL or DAESH, and how to deal with the emerging challenge.

“The issues that were discussed included misuse of social media, sources of impetus that attract persons, specially youth, to DAESH, the growth of DAESH influence in India’s neighbourhood and the best possible law enforcement response,” a Home Ministry spokesperson said.

The need for appropriate welfare schemes for minorities, social media strategies to be followed and capacity building of state police organisations, especially in the area of information technology were also discussed threadbare.

In his remarks, the Home Minister said India’s traditions and family values will triumph over even this evil, and that while the traction that DAESH has got in India is extremely limited, and almost insignificant relative to other countries, yet there is a need to keep up vigil on all fronts, and not let down the guard in any manner.

Singh said a large number of people and most Muslim organisations in India had come out against both DAESH and other forms of terrorism.

The 13 states and Union Territory, which attended the interaction are Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and Maharashtra.

According to intelligence agencies, a total of 23 Indians have so far joined the ISIS of which six were reportedly killed in different incidents. Around 150 Indians are under surveillance for their alleged online links with ISIS, the officials had said.

-16 January 2016 | PTI | New Delhi

Mid day meals of poor quality: CAG

Mid day meals of poor quality: CAG

The quality of food served in schools under the Mid Day Meal Scheme continues to remain poor across the country, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) said in a report tabled in parliament on Friday.

The report raised many red flags such as over-reporting of enrolment figures, financial indiscipline, poor quality of means and inadequate meals.

“Cases of cooking of poor quality meals in unhygienic conditions, inadequate and poor quality of infrastructure in terms of kitchen sheds and utensils were rampant across all states exposing children to health hazards,” it said.

Launched in August 1995 to boost education by increasing enrolment, retention and attendance simultaneously impacting on the nutrition levels of children, the Mid Day Meal Scheme was extended in 2008-09 to students of upper primary classes. The scheme is currently operational in 27 states and seven union territories.

According to the report, the Food Corporation of India did not serve the best quality of rice in Uttar Pradesh schools.

It said there were several complaints of poor quality meal cooked by Chandigarh Industrial and Tourism Development Corporation Limited which is engaged in cooking for schools in Chandigarh.

According to the report, the prescribed nutrition to children was not provided in schools of at least nine states, including the national capital.

In Delhi, samples of cooked food of the 37 service providers during the period 2010-14 were tested by the Sri Ram Institute of Industrial Research.

“Out of the 2,102 samples, 1,876 (89 percent) failed to meet the prescribed nutrition standard,” the report said.

The report showed a consistent decline of enrolment of children in the Mid Day Meal Scheme from 14.69 crore in 2009-10 to 13.87 crore in 2013-14.

Declining trends in enrolments during 2009-10 to 2103-14 were observed across the country in states such as Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, Lakshadweep and Puducherry.

The report also observed that the checks to ensure quality of meals and adequacy of nutritional value of food served to children remained only on paper.

The inadequate monitoring of the scheme by the human resource ministry and the states was a major bottleneck in implementation. The funds earmarked for monitoring and evaluation had been grossly underutilized, the report cited.

-18 December 2015 | IANS | New Delhi

Infant Mortality Rate of Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, UP, Biha (per 1000 live birth)

Infant Mortality Rate of Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, UP, Biha (per 1000 live birth)
Year/State Gujarat Maharashtra West Bengal Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Uttar Pradesh Bihar
1961 84 92 95 114 150 130 94
1981 78 74 62 87 133 99 75
2006 53 35 38 67 74 61 71 60
2010 44 28 31 55 62 51 61 48
2011 41 25 32 52 59 48 57 44
2012 38 25 32 49 56 47 53 43
Source : Economic Survey 2012-13