40 million Indians at risk from rising sea levels: Report

40 million Indians at risk from rising sea levels: UN report

Nearly 40 million Indians will be at risk from rising sea levels by 2050, with people in Mumbai and Kolkata having the maximum exposure to coastal flooding in future due to rapid urbanisation and economic growth, according to a UN environment report.
The Global Environmental Outlook (GEO-6): Regional Assessments said that the worst impacts of climate change are projected to occur in the Pacific and South and Southeast Asia.
It said focusing on the population at risk from sea level rise by 2050, seven of the 10 most vulnerable countries worldwide are in the Asia Pacific region.
India tops the chart with nearly 40 million people in the country projected to be at risk from rising sea levels, followed by more than 25 million in Bangladesh, over 20 million in China and nearly 15 million in the Philippines.
It said that changes in settlement patterns, urbanisation and socio-economic status in Asia have influenced observed trends in vulnerability and exposure to climate extremes.
The report said that in many coastal areas, growing urban settlements have also affected the ability of natural coastal systems to respond effectively to extreme climate events, rendering them more vulnerable.
“Some countries, such as China, India and Thailand, are projected to face increased future exposure to extremes, especially in highly urbanised areas, as a result of rapid urbanisation and economic growth,” it said.
It listed Mumbai and Kolkata in India, Guangzhou and Shanghai in China, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Yangon in Myanmar, Bangkok in Thailand, and Ho Chi Minh City and Hai Phong in Vietnam as projected to have the largest population exposure to coastal flooding in 2070.
“Many of these cities are already exposed to coastal flooding, but have limited capacity to adapt due to their fixed location,” it said.
The report, published ahead of the UN Environment Assembly taking place in Nairobi next week, said the worst impacts of climate change are projected to occur in the Pacific and South and Southeast Asia.
In 2011, six of the ten countries most vulnerable to climate change worldwide were in Asia and the Pacific.
The report said livelihoods can be impacted negatively by natural disasters, economic crises and climate change.
On coastal areas highly exposed to cyclones and typhoons the poor tend to be more exposed to natural disasters because they live on hazardous land.
Evidence suggests that climate change and climate variability and sea-level rise will exacerbate multi- dimensional poverty in most developing countries.
By 2050, areas of storm surge zones are expected for Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines, with a combined total of over 58 million people at risk.
-20 May 2016 | PTI | United Nations

India has its hands full in implementing key reforms: Jaitley

India has its hands full in implementing key reforms: Jaitley


India has its “hands full” in bringing about structural changes and implementing key reforms to boost economic growth, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley has said and hoped that the country will be able to improve its growth this year from the 7.6 per cent achieved last fiscal.

Outlining the direction forward for the Indian economy in his address at the Asia Society here yesterday, Jaitley said the country still requires a lot of structural changes and the government has taken steps to ease processes, make the business environment easier and bring in greater transparency into the system.

Jaitley expressed hope that the bankruptcy law would be approved over the next few weeks and said the government “is in the final stages” of passing a law that deals with commercial indebtedness.

The government has also changed arbitration laws, amended some of the “onerous provisions” of the Companies Act and will bring down corporate tax to 25 per cent over the next couple of years.

On indirect taxes, he said India is in the “last stages” before the Goods and Services Tax (GST) is approved by the Parliament and then with supporting legislations, it actually gets into implementation.

“I think we have all our hands full, the next couple of years bringing about each one of these structural changes. In addition to this, two significant directions which I have followed are increased expenditure in infrastructure and in rural India.

“These are the two areas which were lacking and these appear to be the focus area. That probably will be the direction of the economy in the next few years,” Jaitley said.

He said the world at the moment still faces serious challenges and India cannot “immune” itself from most of the challenges.

He however expressed hope that the country will be able to register improved economic growth this year as compared to the previous fiscals.

“Notwithstanding that we have consistently even in the slowdown environment grown by about 7 per cent, 7.2 per last year, 7.6 this fiscal which ended a few days ago and hopefully this year we could improve on that data,” he said in his address on ‘Make in India- the New Deal’ hosted by CII and the Asia Society Policy Institute.

Jaitley underscored that while India has done fairly well in an environment of global economic challenges, it has the potential to grow even faster.

“I have always believed that given by global standards in a slowdown environment, India is doing significantly well. But given by our own standards and our expectations of being able to grow faster, eradicate poverty and transform into a developed country, we probably can do a little better,” he said, adding that steps that are being taken in this regard to help India register faster economic growth.

“Each one of these steps is now bringing structural changes, bringing in more investment, better amenities in the rural areas, more infrastructure, creating the groundwork for the Indian economy itself to now concentrate on manufacturing,” Jaitley said.

He said legislations like the Goods and Services Tax (GST) are capable of adding to the India’s growth story and the fact that a good monsoon has been predicted after two bad ones “itself has a very positive impact as far as the economy is concerned.

“A good monsoon in turn will also improve upon domestic demand. And if a series of these factors within the country takes place, notwithstanding the slowdown of exports which is essentially on account of global slowdown, we are capable of improving upon our present growth figures which last year seems to have been at around 7.6 per cent,” he said.

Jaitley said there has been “significant transformation” in India and the country is “better off” than it was a few years ago.

“What was being referred to as policy paralysis is now referred to as the bright spot,” he said, adding that the government took decisions in its initial years to open up FDI in segments like defence, railways, real estate and food processing and simplified procedures so that investments become more attractive.

He said another “important advantage” that has taken place is “decisiveness” despite the noise of democracy.

“When the decisions by the executive are required, India has now recently shown a tendency to decide quickly. Decisions don’t hang around for a long period of time,” he said.

Describing the other “great transformation” that has taken place in the country, Jaitley said there was a “great stigma” that decision-making was not transparent in India and “where there could be some decisions taken for collateral reasons.

“That is all something that belongs to the past now. Government discretion in allocation of resources have virtually been completely eliminated and replaced by a market mechanism. That has also added to the credibility of the decision making process in India,” he said.

He said another challenge for the government was how to bring administration and the tax levels in India down to global levels.

“This was another area where India had earned a significantly bad name, that it was a very difficult jurisdiction to deal with. Taxation policy was unpredictable and this concerned both domestic and international investors.

“It was extremely important in the initial years for the government to put these fears (to rest) of retrospective taxes and arbitrary changes in the taxation policy, because investors always prefers consistency and stability and don’t want to be taken by surprise by a future decision,” he said.

He said direct taxes are being brought down to 25 per cent and while “some initial baby steps have been taken”, over the next 1-2 years as exemptions get phased out, more significant steps will be taken.

Highlighting the infrastructure development that has taken place, Jaitley said 233 national highways are under construction and expenditure on rural roads now is three times than what India was spending earlier.

In railways also, the target is to develop 400 railways stations in India over the next 2-3 years and emphasis is being given on developing regional airports. In rural areas also, focus is being given to irrigation and electrification programmes.

He said the government is focussed on expanding manufacturing activity in a very large number of areas and its target of increasing the manufacturing share in the Indian economy “is reasonably realisable”.

“The process of reforms when added to these existing opportunities open up the economy for investment, allows people to invest in sectors like the railways, defence, food processing that otherwise had not been encouraged in the past provides a great opportunity,” he said.

When asked about climate change, he said India, notwithstanding its development need, is completely committed to protecting the climate.

“The level of development we have reached is far, still the hard reality is we have a lot of distance to cover. We need more housing, power, toilets, roads  and factories. Therefore our requirements of fuel is certainly going to increase. Notwithstanding that our own standards of protecting the environment are very rigid.

“There is a method in each one of the steps we are taking,” like taxing oil, cess on coal and emphasis on alternative renewable energy.

“We are conscious of our responsibilities,” he said.

-19 April 2016 | PTI | New York

India has potential to grow faster at 8-9 per cent: Arun Jaitley

India has potential to grow faster at 8-9 per cent:Arun Jaitley

The target will not be very difficult or impossible for India to achieve.

inance Minister Arun Jaitley has stressed that structural reforms addressing infrastructure, irrigation, farm productivity and manufacturing can help boost growth by about 1-1.5 percentage points.

India has the potential to grow at between eight and nine per cent, Mr. Jaitely said while addressing delegates at a global business summit.

A higher economic growth can end poverty and with the benefit of the slump in global oil and commodity prices and good monsoons, which hopefully are better than the last two years, the target will not be very difficult or impossible for India to achieve.

The upcoming Budget will not resort to “populism” and will focus on structural reforms, he said. “The Budget has to weigh the areas of weaknesses where investments are required… therefore, I have to pitch in that direction,” Mr. Jaitley said.

“At the end of the day, what is it that you are asking for is to get that cutting edge that you must grow at 1-1.5 per cent faster than what you are doing today… We all know that our potential is right there.”

India is one of the few economies in the world that survived crises in 2001, 2008 and 2015 and, “when a country grows over 7.5 per cent, we stand out and we feel happy about this…however, he also said that 7 per cent growth isn’t India’s optimum growth rate…we have a lot going for us… we should be able to achieve eight per cent growth.”

The global situation, he said, is an opportunity for India to grow at a better pace.

“If we show we have the appetite for reforms, the investments will flow in.” the finance minister said. Economies the world over are doing badly because of the plummeting oil and commodity prices but the slump “suits us because we are net buyers of these” and it is an advantage that can help the government in its efforts to “put our house in order”. Though economists, industry and other experts are sharply divided on their views on whether a deviation from the government’s committed path of fiscal consolidation will benefit the economy, the decision must also factor in the tax buoyancy and the available resources, he said.

Responding to a question on Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s remarks on Friday about the difference in attitudes of experts towards subsidies aimed at the poor and the tax sops for the corporate sector, the finance minister clarified that the country needs both a strong corporate as well as a sound agriculture sector. “India needs sound policies to help both these sectors and not put them in conflict with each other.”

“The government is for rationalisation of subsidies, not for its abolition. It is not against subsidies, but will focus on targeted subsidies. Subsidies must be entitled to people who need them,” he said.

He also expressed hope that the Congress will “see reason” and help the government pass, in the Budget Session of the Parliament beginning next month, the constitution amendment bill meant for the roll out of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) Bill.

“A law like this which impacts taxation structure of India being passed by consensus is our preference, otherwise it can be put to vote…if there is a discussion on a particular idea in the Bill, I am willing to discuss with them… certainly, we can’t bound future generations to a flawed legislation.”

He said he had reached out to the Congress and can’t see why it should have a rethink on the Bill being the author of the reform in the first place. “It is the important reform of UPA… I have to give credit to them… if the author turns against his own script, what do I make of it.”

-January 31, 2016